We test and review fitness products based on an independent, multi-point methodology. If you use our links to purchase something, we may earn a commission. Read our disclosures.

Even if you weren’t looking for the best pre-workout gummies out there, you’re still in the right place. We had our team set out and explore the relatively new market of these novel supplements and order some to try. We do have to say up front, though, that we weren’t super blown away by the results of our search in terms of effectiveness.

And it makes sense. When you take a supplement as a powder, companies have a ton of wiggle room in terms of the amount of ingredients they can include along with the doses of these ingredients. If they want to add more ingredients in a certain formulation, they simply make a bigger scoop. 

RELATED: Best Pre-Workout

With supplements like gummies and capsules which only take up a finite amount of space for ease of consumption, you don’t have this wiggle room. So, if you’re looking for the same sledgehammer-type impact you get from a high-stim pre-workout powder in a gummy, then you’ll more than likely end up disappointed. Furthermore, if you’re just looking for a bit of pre-workout fuel for your cardio, we would suggest going to find a healthier carb source. 

However, if you want to try something new with your pre-workout routine, there are definitely some options in the gummy department. What you choose to go with, though, depends on your dietary preferences, budget, and specific goals. With that in mind, keep reading to see what we found. 

Medical disclaimer: This article is intended for educational and informational purposes only. It is not intended as a substitute for medical advice. For health advice, contact a licensed healthcare provider.

Best Pre-Workout Gummies

Best Pre-Workout Gummy Overall: Kodagenix Pre-Workout Gummies

Good for: Those who want the closest they can get to real pre-workout in a gummy form

Best Overall

Kodagenix Preworkout Gummies

GGR Score: 4 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • The first pre-workout gummy, according to the company
  • Consume one gummy 20-30 minutes before your workout
  • 5 grams of active ingredients per gummy
  • Listed benefits: increased energy, focus, vascularity, and performance
  • Also claimed to support recovery
  • Available in 6 different flavors similar to sour candy and a variety pack

Pros & Cons


  • Made in the United States
  • Veteran-owned company
  • In gummy form so no need to deal with powders and shaker bottles


  • No third-party testing
  • Lower dosages of pre-workout ingredients than powdered form
  • Very limited reviews
  • Your preferred flavor may be sold out
  • Limited in store availability

Bottom Line

Kodagenix created one of the first pre-workout gummy supplements. If you’re used to traditional powdered pre-workout supplements, this gummy may not be for you. The ingredients are in much lower doses. However, if you don’t like chugging down a big drink before your workout, these gummies may be a solid option.

With the slogan “Quality, Convenience, and Gains,” Kodagenix is a sports nutrition supplement company that asserts its goal is to simply provide consistent supplementation with convenient products that are research-based.

They also have what they say is The World’s First Pre Workout Gummy!™ which we’ll get to in a minute. Kodagenix also sells the powder version of pre-workout, creatine, and even pump gummies.

RELATED: Best Pump Pre-Workout

We had Kodagenix’s pre-workout gummies tested by GGR Senior Staff Writer and Olympian Caine Wilkes who tried the Peach Mango flavor. When we asked him about taste he had this to say, “The flavor tastes good enough, but it’s so SOUR!” 

He likens the sour gummy to a Warhead, saying, “The citric acid was definitely present. Also, it totally tastes like a full scoop of pre-workout was blended with some gelatin and compressed in a single bite.” That said, we still awarded a 5 out of 5 for taste.

A hand holds up a Kodagenix Pre-Workout Gummy.

We gave it a 4 out of 5 for formulation as this gummy contains many of the common ingredients you would find in your traditional pre-workout powder such as taurine, which could be a game changer for those who prefer supplements in gummy form. We also think this is the only gummy on the list that contains both beta-alanine and citrulline. 

The only problem is that these ingredients are pretty underdosed compared to conventional pre-workout formulas with only 800 milligrams of beta-alanine and 1,575 milligrams of l-citrulline, the latter of which is a nitric oxide booster. The clinically effective dose of l-citrulline is 3 to 5 grams1 in order to reap the benefits of increased blood flow, and Kodagenix gummies only have half of the minimum dose. 

As far as price, we gave it a 3 out of 5 at $1.50 per serving. Not a bad price, but a bit on the high side when compared to other pre-workouts, especially when you consider the formulation could be more potent. 

Price per serving$1.50
FlavorsCherry Bomb, Key Lime, Midnight Blue Razz, Orange Dreamsicle, Peach Mango, Very Berry, Assorted
Caffeine Content300 mg
Active IngredientsL-Citrulline, Beta-alanine, Caffeine HCl, Taurine, Huperzine A

Best-Tasting Pre-Workout Gummy: Olly Pre-Game Energize

Good for: Those who want a very mild formula for low-intensity exercise


Olly Pre-Game Energize Gummy Rings

GGR Score: 3.75 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Energy gummy rings
  • Listed benefits: increased energy and endurance
  • Gluten-free
  • Includes S7 plant-based blend to serve as a nitric oxide booster
  • Blackberry Lime-flavored

Pros & Cons


  • Third-party tested and NSF-Certified
  • No synthetic flavors or colors
  • Affordable at under $1 per serving
  • Very positive reviews on taste
  • In gummy form so no need to deal with powders and shaker bottles


  • Lacks multiple traditional pre-workout ingredients
  • Very mixed customer reviews on effectiveness
  • Only available in 1 flavor
  • Processed in a facility with products that may contains soy, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, milk, fish, shellfish, wheat, and sesame

Bottom Line

Olly Pre-Game Energize Gummy Rings are designed to offer an energy boost before a workout. These are called a pre-game supplement rather than a pre-workout, as it lacks multiple traditional pre-workout ingredients such as citrulline, beta-alanine, and betaine. There were very mixed customer reviews on the effectiveness of these gummies. Customers with a history of traditional pre-workout usage typically found it ineffective.

With a gummy for nearly everything from focus to sleep to even sex drive, Olly is one of the biggest names in the gummy wellness world. The particular type we had GGR Senior Staff Writer Caine Wilkes, OLY, USAW-L1, try were the Pre-Game Energize Gummy Rings, which is Olly’s version of a pre-workout gummy.  

To start with the price, we gave it a 5 out of 5, since 80 cents per serving is pretty doable for most budgets, so thumbs up there. Now that said, you get what you pay for with Olly Pre-Game Energize as the formulation…well, it isn’t very good at all. 

We gave it a 1 out of 5 for formulation as there isn’t a lot going on with the ingredients to the point that it can hardly be called a pre-workout supplement at all. They’re more like energy gummies and that’s still being generous. 

RELATED: Pre-Workout vs Energy Drink

Olly Pre-Workout Gummies next to the container.

There are some B vitamins and a proprietary blend of extracts like turmeric and green tea, but that’s about it. Even that proprietary blend only totals up to about 50 total milligrams of compounds.

The first ingredient is corn syrup, followed by sugar, which results in each gummy containing 3 grams of added sugars. Sure, the inclusion of some vitamins are great, but not what we’re looking for in a pre-workout when you can just eat some pre-workout food

The good news is that Caine loved the taste, so we gave it a 5 out of 5 for that category. “Less of a lime flavor and more of a berry, but the sweetness is pleasant. I would have definitely assumed they were just like gummy bears in the candy aisle if you didn’t tell me they were pre-workout gummies.”

When asked about his general experience with these gummies, Caine reported, “To be fair, these aren’t designed to boost energy levels the way a high-stim pre-workout would, but I didn’t feel a lot from them.”

Price per serving$0.80
FlavorsBerry Lime Burst
Caffeine Content0 mg
Active IngredientsGreen Coffee Bean Extract, Green Tea Extract, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12

Best Budget Pre-Workout Gummy: Bounce Nutrition Pre-Workout Gummies

Good for: Vegan athletes looking for a more palatable way to take pre-workout

Best Budget

Bounce Nutrition Pre-Workout Gummies

GGR Score: 3.3 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Vegan pre-workout gummies
  • Listed benefits: improved focus, energy, and strength
  • Available in three flavors: Fruit Punch, Blueberry Pie, and Black Razz

Pros & Cons


  • Made in the United States in a GMP-compliant facility
  • Vegan and gluten-free
  • Manufactured in an allergy-free facility
  • 60-day money-back guarantee
  • In gummy form so no need to deal with powders and shaker bottles


  • Limited customer reviews
  • Mixed reviews on taste—multiple reviews mentioned poor aftertaste
  • Only available in 3 flavors
  • Different flavors have different ingredients
  • Lower dosages of ingredients than traditional powdered pre-workout

Bottom Line

Take one to three Bounce Nutrition Pre-workout gummies 15 to 30 minutes before your workout. Bounce states these gummies will help improve focus, energy, and strength. There are limited reviews but customers generally found them effective but complained of an aftertaste.

Bounce as a company began when four friends bonded over their awful experiences with pre-workout powder, stating that dry scooping sucked and they weren’t fans of the short term effects. So, they spent two years formulating pre-workout gummies and have since made over 100 batches of non-GMO and gluten-free gummies made in the USA. 

Bounce offers three different varieties of vegan pre-workout gummies: Beast Mode, Shred, and Mushroom+ with Beast Mode being the strongest in their lineup, according to Bounce. So, naturally, that’s the one we ordered and tried. Stephen Sheehan, GGR staff writer and CPT, was a willing candidate and went with the Fruit Punch flavor. 

“I got an energy boost from this that was decent,” Stephen says. “But I didn’t get anywhere close to the benefits I’m used to getting from my normal pre-workout supplement.” As far as taste, we rated it a 2 out of 5 based on Stephen’s feedback. “To be blunt, it’s just not good,” Stephen continues. “It tastes really artificial and I’m not on my own in this; a lot of customer reviews have the same complaint.”

They are decent on price, though, at $1.33 per serving. Not the cheapest in the world, but it is an OK formulation for a pre-workout gummy, so we awarded it a 4 out of 5 rating for price. Speaking of formulation, we did give a 2 out of 5 rating in that category.

A container of Bounce Pre-Workout Gummies

The active ingredients in Bounce Beast Mode gummies are as follows:

  • Caffeine (200 mg): We know this one is included to give an energy boost for athletic performance. And the potency equals that of about a 16-ounce coffee, which is pretty good for a gummy. Just be wary if you get jitters easily from caffeine.  
  • L-Carnitine (14 mg): Unless you’re an older adult or a vegan, you are likely getting plenty of carnitine. However, for those who are deficient, it can help with reducing muscle soreness after intense exercise2. However, studies done only provide this effect at 500 mg to 2 g per day and Bounce gummies don’t even come close to providing that. 
  • L-Theanine (66 mg): Studies have shown that, when combined with caffeine, l-theanine can help boost mental performance3. However, you would need to get about 100 to 200 mg daily to achieve this. 
  • Ginkgo Biloba (5 mg): You’ve likely heard of this nootropic before and it actually has a lot of science behind it in terms of its ability to boost brain function, particularly memory4. However, these results were the most profound in older adults and side effects in younger athletes are much more consistent. 

So, while Bounce has its heart in the right place, the caffeine content isn’t enough to overcome the underdosed ingredients. Also, we aren’t fans of the 4 grams of added sugar, so we rated the formulation a 2 out of 5. 

All in all, though, there aren’t a lot of vegan gummies out there, so if you adhere to that diet, you might be willing to sacrifice flavor to integrate Bounce gummies into your routine for a boost in energy levels. 

Price per serving$1.33
FlavorsFruit Punch
Caffeine Content200 mg
Active IngredientsCaffeine, L-Carnitine, L-Theanine, Ginkgo Biloba

Best Pre-Workout Gummy Texture: AXO Pre-Workout Gummies

Good for: Those looking for a tangible energy boost who don’t mind some added sugar

Best Texture

AXO Nutrition Pre-Workout Gummies

GGR Score: 3.25 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Vegan gummy pre-workout supplement
  • Gluten-free and non-GMO
  • Available in 1 flavor: Watermelon

Pros & Cons


  • In gummy form so no need to deal with powders and shaker bottles
  • Made in the United States in a GMP registered facility
  • Allergen-, gluten-, nut-, and dairy-free
  • Vegan


  • Very limited customer reviews
  • 1 serving = 5 gummies
  • Only 15 servings per container
  • Expensive at > $2 per serving
  • Only available in 1 flavor: Watermelon

Bottom Line

AXO Nutrition pre-workout gummies are vegan and gluten-free. AXO shares that you can take anywhere from 2 to 10 gummies depending on how much energy you require. They just caution not to take more than 15 gummies in a day. There are very limited customer reviews so we cannot speak to how customers feel about the gummies.

Based in San Diego, California, AXO makes its supplements in the USA with their pre-workout gummies being vegan, non-GMO, gluten-free, and made with natural ingredients. There’s only one flavor, Watermelon, and we had GGR Head of Content Nicole Davis, CPT, PN1-NC, try it out for us. 

RELATED: Best Low-Caffeine Pre-Workout

“These are great for an energy boost and some extra focus,” Nicole states. “For those who don’t want to choke down a drink, it could be a good form of pre-workout.” As far as taste goes, we rated it a 4 out of 5. Nicole says, “Sweet, tastes like watermelon candy but the flavor is a bit faint. Not bad, though! I will also say it kinda of tastes like a vitamin as you chew it, but nothing awful.”

As far as texture, we gave it a 5 out of 5 rating. “If you’ve ever had fruit jellies from Trader Joe’s, these have a super similar size, shape, and even sugar coating,” Nicole reports. “They are a little more tough, which is fine as long as you can handle the large serving size.”

Speaking of serving size, we have to talk about that. One serving size of AXO gummies is a whopping five gummies. “I could see that getting rough after the third or fourth gummy,” Nicole chimes in. “If you’re looking for some tinglies and pumps, this isn’t the most efficient supplement to take in order to get them.”

AXO Pre-Workout Gummies with container.

And that’s because the formulation isn’t super great for the large serving size. It contains vitamin B12, which most people don’t need to supplement with if they eat even a moderate amount of animal protein, and chromium. AXO gummies contain the common pre-workout ingredients l-theanine and caffeine anhydrous for focus and energy, respectively. 

It also contains Alpha GPC, which research shows can help improve muscular strength and power5. So, not bad, but not good either. Especially considering you have to chew on five gummies to get these ingredients in and the dosages could definitely be higher. 

As a final knock, these things have almost 9 grams of added sugar per serving. If that doesn’t sound like a lot, just know that one Reese’s cup only has 8 grams of added sugar. Might be useful for a post-workout refuel, not so beneficial as a daily wellness supplement. With all of that in mind, we had to give a 1 out of 5 for formulation here. 

These little guys are also $2.33 per serving, which is an insane price for gummies. So giving a 1-out-of-5 rating for price is a no brainer there. We acknowledge that gummies are likely more difficult to formulate than powder, but over $2 per serving is a lot for even the most high-quality supplements.  

Price per serving$2.33
Caffeine Content100 mg
Active IngredientsL-Theanine, Vitamin B12, Chromium, Caffeine Anhydrous, Alpha GPC

Other Pre-Workout Gummies We Researched

  • Animal Energy Performance Chews: Take our tester’s word for it with these: “These are pretty gross. Super chalky and powdery when you bite them, and the flavor is bad.”

How We Picked and Tested the Best Pre-Workout Gummies

As much fun as it was for our team to eat gummies to come up with these reviews, we didn’t do it all for noms. The brands on our list were chosen according to a specific criteria. In considering these factors, we took the following into account: 


One of the biggest things you should consider when looking at a pre-workout gummy is how closely the formulation comes to a traditional pre-workout supplement. Though gummies are arguably more pleasant to consume, there’s a reason that the powder form of pre-workout is the most popular and dominant form on the market. 

RELATED: Pre-Workout Nausea: What Causes It And How Can You Prevent It?

That’s because supplement companies can pack a lot more active ingredients like nitric oxide boosters, creatine monohydrate, and the branched chain amino acids we come to expect in a pre-workout supplement in a powder form. Given that gummies have to be bite sized, they can’t include nearly as much. 

Our goal was therefore to choose brands that would mimic traditional pre-workout supplements in terms of formulation as closely as possible. We also chose formulations that varied in content and potency depending on what your specific goals are or the benefits you wish to get from taking a pre-workout, whether it be energy or muscle recovery.

Taste and Texture

Unless you’re taking supplements in a capsule, taste and texture are always factors when we are choosing sports nutrition supplements to recommend. If you are expected to take something every day, it had better taste enjoyable to some extent.

With gummies, we tried to avoid brands that were too sweet, not sweet enough, downright gross tasting, or that had a chalky, unpleasant texture. Again, the big reason a fitness buff might turn to energy gummies or pre-workout gummies is because they expect them to taste better than a powder or drink. So it’s a big factor. 


Even if the effect was mild (which, to be blunt, you should expect if you decide to opt for a pre-workout gummy), we wanted to recommend products that made our testers actually feel a difference. 

RELATED: Best Pump Supplements

Olympian Caine Wilkes eating some Olly Pre-Game Energize Gummies

It’s also important to be wary of placebo effects. So-called pre-workout gummies may just be packed with sugar and that pre-workout rush you feel is nothing more than a sugar high that’s followed promptly by a crash, just like an energy drink. So we had our testers take note of whether or not the gummies they tried actually had an effect on their athletic performance. 

Benefits of Pre-Workout Gummies

The likes of creatine gummies and pre-workout in gummy form may not be something you’ve heard about until now, but there are some benefits of note to using this alternative form of pre-workout. Let’s take a look at some.

Easier to Take Than Powder

For those who have a real problem with chugging down pre-workout powder formulas, the potential to get the benefits of pre-workout in something that tastes like a gummy bear can be a game changer. 

This is especially fitting if you aren’t one who’s looking for a high-stim supplement that’ll give skin splitting pumps or an insane energy boost from hundreds of milligrams of caffeine. That magnitude of jacked is unlikely to be contained in a gummy, after all. However, for those who don’t mind more of a mild boost, gummies are a great alternative pre-workout. 

RELATED: Coffee vs Pre-Workout

More Convenient and Portable

As awesome as pre-workout powder can be, it does require you to have a source of water and a shaker bottle on you when you need them. If you’re someone who is constantly on the go, or just super forgetful, this can put a big damper on your day if you brought the tub of pre, but don’t have the tools to make your drink. 

With gummies, they can be stored nearly anywhere and can be brought along with you with no auxiliary equipment needed. 

May Work More Quickly

We still have a lot of science that needs to be conducted on pre-workout gummies since they are fairly new to the scene. However, it could be hypothesized that gummies are absorbed into the system more quickly than powder due to their method of delivery.

The reason for this is the same reason for the ill-advised trend of dry scooping protein powder and that’s because, when you drink something orally, it has to go through your digestive tract and then be absorbed into the bloodstream to exert its effects. 

However, when you chew on something rather than drinking it quickly, it gets absorbed in the mucus membranes in the mouth which cuts out the middle-man of the GI tract. 

Because of the mucosa’s high vascularization, meaning it contains a lot of superficial blood vessels, chemical compounds that are absorbed through the mouth’s mucus membranes are fast tracked directly to the bloodstream for much more rapid absorption6

This is why certain drugs that need to take effect quickly, such as a life-saving glucose tablet for diabetics or nausea medication to stop vomiting, are often available in a form that goes under the tongue. With this in mind, it makes sense to think gummies may work more quickly than powder. But actual research is needed to confirm this. 

Dosing and Interactions 

You should always take supplements exactly as they are directed on the label. Given that pre-workout gummies are a very new supplement, it’s difficult to nail down what the proper dosage should be. 

However, if you take prescription medications, are pregnant, or are breastfeeding, you should check with your primary care provider to ensure you aren’t putting yourself at risk for interactions or complications. 

Some gummies on this list also contain nitric oxide boosters and caffeine which can have a significant impact on the circulatory system. So, it is not recommended that you take these supplements if you have pre-existing heart conditions.

Looking down into an opened container of AXO Pre-Workout Gummies.

Finally, most of the gummies we found are quite underdosed in terms of active ingredients, so it may be tempting to take more than what is recommended in order to reach the effective doses. However, we strongly advise against this, especially with gummies that contain caffeine. 

RELATED: Pre-Workout On An Empty Stomach: Smart Or Silly?

Not only will this likely expose you to way too much sugar, serving sizes are put in place by companies for a reason, and shouldn’t be exceeded based on your judgment alone. Remember, when it comes to supplements, more isn’t always better. If you are really concerned about getting your proper dosages in, then it may just be best to switch back to looking for a powder. 

Third-Party Testing

The pickings are slim in terms of pre-workout gummy brands that are available, but not many of them are third-party tested for safety. So, if you are an athlete who is drug tested, you might want to stick with an NSF for Sport or Informed Choice powder for now until the market grows a bit more. For everyone else, we at GGR still always recommend choosing third-party tested sports nutrition supplements whenever possible. 

Buying Guide: What to Look for in Pre-Workout Gummies

Though supplement gummies seem easier to navigate than something like protein powder, there are still some things to be wary of when selecting a brand to work into your routine. Here’s what we suggest you consider:

Dietary Preferences and Restrictions

If you have certain dietary restrictions where you restrict yourself to gluten-free or non-GMO foods, you’ll want to check the labels of your prospective pre-workout gummies. The most relevant dietary restriction to consider when choosing gummies, however, is if you follow a vegan diet. 

RELATED: Best Gluten-Free Meal Delivery Services

Most gummies, whether pre-workout or a gummy bear, contain gelatin in order to maintain their chewy texture. The problem is that gelatin is made from collagen and collagen is sourced from animals, with the most common sources being collagen from the shells of crustaceans, or the bones and tendons of cows and pigs. 

Given that that sounds like the farthest thing from vegan, make sure to check your ingredient list. You may also want to steer clear of gelatin-containing products if you have a shellfish allergy, as you may not know where the gelatin has been sourced from.

Added Sugar

When taking a supplement to support your fitness, weight loss, and wellness goals, it’s important to look at the big picture. One reason it’s not recommended to take an energy drink pre-workout as a caffeine source when you can have something natural like green tea or black coffee is because it’s sort of counterproductive to chug grams and grams of added sugars if you are exercising for health. 

RELATED: The Best Sugar-Free Protein Powder

With gummies it’s no different. Sure, they are technically a supplement in a candy form which is the whole point, but you still want to minimize your exposure to too many inflammatory refined sugars as much as you can unless advised otherwise by a registered dietitian. 

Cost vs Value

This should go without saying, but if you pay a pretty penny for something, you’d expect it to have an impact that’s equal to the price you paid on Amazon or otherwise. What we mean is, you should choose a pre-workout gummy that is priced the same as its value.

If you don’t want to spend a lot of cash on gummies and are OK with getting just a slight energy boost from a modest formulation for a cheap price, that’s great. However, if you see a hefty price tag on these things and it doesn’t have enough to offer in terms of meeting your goals, you’re going to want to look elsewhere. 

FAQs About Pre-Workout Gummies

Are gummies good for a pre-workout?

Generally speaking, gummies are not as good for a pre-workout as powder since gummies tend to contain a lot more added sugar and a lot less active ingredients due to their small size.

What’s the most effective pre-workout?

Here are our picks for the best pre-workout on the market today, as approved and reviewed by registered dietitians and fitness professionals:

-Best Pre-Workout Overall: Transparent Labs BULK
-Best Pre-Workout for Focus: XWERKS Ignite
-Best Pre-Workout for Beginners: Jacked Factory Nitrosurge
-Best Pre-Workout for Weight Loss: Transparent Labs LEAN
-Best Budget Pre-Workout: Nutricost Pre-X
-Best Vegan Pre-Workout: Onnit Alpha BRAIN Pre-Workout
-Best Caffeine-Free Pre-Workout: Legion Athletics Pulse
-Best-Tasting Pre-Workout: Cellucor C4
-Best Pre-Workout for a Pump: 4 Gauge
-Best Natural Pre-Workout: Pre Lab Pro
-Best Sweetener-Free Pre-Workout: Naked Nutrition Naked Energy Pre-Workout
-Best Pre-Workout With Creatine: Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard Pre-Workout
-Best Non-Stim Pre-Workout: Transparent Labs Stim-Free Pre-Workout
-Best Pre-Workout for Muscle Gain: Kaged Pre-Kaged
-Best High-Stim Pre-Workout: NutriCartel El Jefe

Is C4 a good pre-workout?

C4 is a great pre-workout for beginners given its caffeine content and very affordable price tag, but its formulation isn’t as potent as other high-quality pre-workout powders. 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.


  1. Rogers JM, Gills J, Gray M. Acute effects of Nitrosigine® and citrulline malate on vasodilation in young adults. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020;17(1):12. Published 2020 Feb 24. doi:10.1186/s12970-020-00343-y 
  2. Ho JY, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, et al. l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Metabolism. 2010;59(8):1190-1199. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2009.11.012
  3. Zaragoza J, Tinsley G, Urbina S, et al. Effects of acute caffeine, theanine and tyrosine supplementation on mental and physical performance in athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2019;16(1):56. Published 2019 Nov 26. doi:10.1186/s12970-019-0326-3
  4. Kennedy DO, Jackson PA, Haskell CF, Scholey AB. Modulation of cognitive performance following single doses of 120 mg Ginkgo biloba extract administered to healthy young volunteers. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007;22(8):559-566. doi:10.1002/hup.885
  5. Bellar D, LeBlanc NR, Campbell B. The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:42. Published 2015 Nov 17. doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0103-x
  6. Zhang H, Zhang J, Streisand JB. Oral mucosal drug delivery: clinical pharmacokinetics and therapeutic applications. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(9):661-680. doi:10.2165/00003088-200241090-00003

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