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You may know that some folks consume the best pre-workout products before a strength training session, but have you ever heard of taking pre-workout for cardio? It’s not only possible, it may improve your aerobic capacity1 as well as muscular strength and endurance and increase energy levels and mental focus. 

While there are fewer studies on the effectiveness of pre-workout for aerobic exercise2 versus strength training, it doesn’t mean cardio enthusiasts don’t want an energy boost. Whether you plan on sprinting or running long distances, we’ve hand-picked the best pre-workout for cardio sessions. 

Each of the pre-workouts selected for this roundup has been tested by one of our GGR expert product testers. We use our in-depth testing methodology (which will be explained in detail at the end of this roundup) to test and rate the pre-workouts based on formulation, taste, solubility, price per serving, third-party testing certifications, and nutrition label transparency. 

Medical disclaimer: This article is intended for educational and informational purposes only. It is not intended as a substitute for medical advice. For health advice, contact a licensed healthcare provider.

Best Pre-Workout For Cardio

Best Pre-Workout For Cardio Overall: Transparent Labs Stim-Free Pre-Workout

Good for: Cardio enthusiasts looking for improved athletic performance

Best Overall

Transparent Labs Stim-Free Pre-Workout

GGR Score: 4.08 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Stim-free pre-workout
  • No caffeine
  • 7 flavors available
  • Easily mix with water
  • Good for people who work out at night
  • Won't give you the jitters or tingling sensations

Pros & Cons


  • Free of artificial colors, sweeteners, and other additives
  • Non-stim (no caffeine)
  • Won't give you the jitters
  • Designed to increase nitric oxide uptake in the muscle cells
  • Can subscribe and save


  • Those who want caffeine should look elsewhere
  • Doesn't contain creatine or BCAAs

Bottom Line

Transparent Labs Stim-Free Pre-Workout is an uncaffeinated pre-workout powder that will not give you the jitters or tingling commonly associated with pre-workout supplements. This pre-workout contains a blend of citrulline malate, beta-alanine, L-tyrosine, taurine, and elevATP, a compound claimed to increase ATP activity in muscle cells.

If you’re looking for a pre-workout ideal for cardio exercise, our top choice is Transparent Labs Stim-Free pre-workout. Even though you won’t find caffeine on the nutrition label, there are a ton of beneficial ingredients that beat out other pre-workout formulas. It made it to the top of our list for best stim-free pre-workout, too. 

GGR tester and certified personal trainer Amanda Capritto used the Transparent Labs Stim-Free pre-workout down to the last scoop and reports there are a variety of flavors to choose from. The Cherry Limeade has a not-too-sweet taste (which she liked), and it mixes fairly well in a shaker cup (but you will get a few floaties). 

But what Amanda was mostly jazzed up about was the formulation, which she scored 4.5 out of 5 stars. “This stim-free pre-workout has some pretty quality ingredients including beta-alanine, citrulline malate, and sodium and potassium3 for hydration and muscle cell function,” says Amanda. 


Amanda also enjoyed seeing betaine anhydrous4 on the ingredient list, which may help improve muscular endurance, an essential aspect to cardio training. The ingredient list includes Senactiv, a compound that claims to enhance endurance, energy, and recovery. 

Taurine5, an amino acid, is also present in this Transparent Labs pre-workout and plays a role in muscular development and central nervous system regulation. The formula also includes ancient peat and apple extract6 (in a special formulation called elevATP), which may increase ATP production and improve aerobic performance, although research is rather limited. 

We provide more in-depth details about formulation and our taste-testing experience in our Transparent Labs Stim-Free Pre-Workout review. We’ve also tested and enjoyed Transparent Labs LEAN (formulated to promote fat burning) and Transparent Labs BULK pre-workouts, which both contain caffeine. 

Price per serving$1.67
Caffeine per serving0 mg
Other key ingredients Citrulline malate, beta-alanine, betaine anhydrous, taurine, L-tyrosine, ElevATP, Senactiv, BioPerine, Huperzine A, Himalayan pink salt, potassium chloride
Flavor options
Third-party tested?Yes; Informed Choice

Best Natural Pre-Workout For Cardio: Legion Athletics Pulse Pre-Workout

Good for: Folks looking for an energy boost and mental focus 

Best Natural Pre-Workout

Legion Athletics Pulse Pre-Workout

GGR Score: 4.35 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • 100% nature-based
  • Free from added sugar, food dyes, and other chemicals
  • Full refund if not satisfied
  • Can get with or without caffeine
  • 15 flavors available

Pros & Cons


  • All natural ingredients
  • Free from dye and chemicals
  • Naturally sweetened
  • Intended to avoid the dreaded crash
  • Full refund if not satisfied
  • Can get with or without caffeine
  • 15 flavors available


  • Natural sweeteners make for a different taste—it may not be your cup of tea
  • Only 21 servings per tub

Bottom Line

Formulated with all-natural ingredients, each of which are present at a high level, Pulse is a fan-favorite. If you’re trying to avoid artificial flavors and chemicals, this may be a good choice.

If you’re looking for a serious boost in energy, the Legion Athletics Pulse Pre-Workout formula is sure to deliver with a whopping 350 milligrams of caffeine per serving. Legion Pulse is also showcased on our strongest pre-workout roundup. Caffeine content aside, Pulse pre-workout earns a 4.25 out of 5 stars in the formulation category. 

Not only will you get a boost of energy from caffeine, Pulse is formulated with L-theanine, which has shown to improve alertness and focus on its own, and even better when combined with caffeine7.   

Additionally, Legion Pulse features L-citrulline malate, a nitric oxide enhancer8 that dilates blood vessels and increases blood flow to the muscles. While more research is needed in support of endurance athletes, citrulline malate may help improve muscle endurance while reducing muscle soreness.

Legion Pulse Scooper

Beta-alanine, a non-essential amino acid, is also present in Legion Pulse. Beta-alanine9 has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce muscle fatigue in short bouts of training, like high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and improve overall exercise performance. 

If the high caffeine content sounds shocking to you, don’t let it scare you off—you can purchase Pulse pre-workout without caffeine if you toggle the dropdown menu above the flavor options. And speaking of flavors, there are 20 flavor options with caffeine and 8 without. Nicole Davis, certified personal trainer, nutrition coach, and GGR head of content tested the Blue Raspberry and gave it a 4 out of 5 stars. 

“It’s very sweet with a slightly bitter aftertaste,” she says. That said, Nicole noticed on customer reviews that fan favorite flavors included Fruit Punch, Sour Candy, and Strawberry Kiwi. Our full Legion Pulse review has all the in-depth details on Nicole’s experience with the pre-workout.

Price per serving$2.25
Caffeine content350 mg (0 mg option) 
Key Ingredients L-citrulline malate, beta-alanine, caffeine, betaine anhydrous, L-theanine, calcium, sodium, potassium, Alpha-GPC
Flavor options20 flavor options (8 options in the non-caffeinated variety)
Third-party tested?Yes; Labdoor 

Best Pre-Workout For Endurance: 1st Phorm Endura-Formance

Good for: Folks looking for a stim-free formula with the need for hydration 

Best for Endurance

1st Phorm Endura-Formance

GGR Score: 4.3 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Combines creatine and beta-alanine 
  • Enhances strength, power, and endurance
  • Increases muscle hydration 
  • Promotes oxygen and nutrient delivery to muscles
  • Available in four flavors

Pros & Cons


  • Added creatine
  • Reportedly effective
  • No caffeine
  • No jitters or post-workout crash
  • Includes PeakO2 adaptogen blend


  • Taste is not for everyone
  • Sucralose included

Bottom Line

Endura-Formance is formulated with all the key ingredients one would look for in a pre-workout drink. While the taste is not for everyone, most users experienced improved performance at the gym.

1st Phorm Endura-Formance is our top pick if you train for endurance. Because it’s free from stimulants and our tester didn’t experience adverse side effects during our testing process, we think this pre-workout is one of the best supplements for runners

Amanda Capritto, certified personal trainer, certified sports nutrition coach, and GGR expert product tester gives taste and solubility 4.5- and 4-out-of-5-star ratings, respectively. “I ordered Berry Lemonade and it’s fantastic: Not too sweet, slightly tart, and no weird aftertaste,” says Amanda. 

A scoop of powder is shown next to a container of 1st Phorm Endura-Formance

When it comes to formulation, Endura-Formula earns 3.75 out of 5 stars. Amanda appreciates the fact Endura-Formance includes electrolytes like sodium and potassium for steady-state or long durations of cardio. She also likes seeing the patented PeakO2 compound that claims to increase oxygen usage while decreasing lactic acid buildup. 

The 1st Phorm pre-workout also contains a compound called S7, which is a blend of seven ingredients (green coffee bean extract, green tea extract, turmeric extract, tart cherry, blueberry, broccoli, kale) that has been shown to increase nitric oxide10 production, which may help increase muscular endurance and reduce recovery time. 

You can get more details on Amanda’s experience in our 1st Phorm Endura-Formance review. 

Price per serving$1.50
Caffeine content0 mg
Key Ingredients Creatine, beta-alanine, betaine anhydrous, sodium, potassium, L-tyrosine, cordyceps, reishi, king trumpet, shiitake, lion’s mane, turkey tail, green coffee bean extract, green tea extract, turmeric extract, tart cherry, blueberry, broccoli, kale
Flavor options4
Third-party tested?Yes

Best Cardio Pre-Workout For Women: Jacked Factory Nitrosurge

Good for: Women looking for mild to moderate caffeine doses 

Best for Women

Jacked Factory Nitrosurge Pre-Workout Powder

GGR Score: 4.2 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Vegan pre-workout 
  • 180 mg of caffeine per scoop 
  • Manufactured in USA in cGMP certified facility

Pros & Cons


  • Available in multiple sizes: 30 or 60 servings
  • Subscribe and save 15%
  • Available in 11 flavors
  • 100% money-back guarantee
  • Manufactured in USA in cGMP certified facility
  • Vegan
  • Affordable at under $1 per serving (1 scoop serving)


  • Mixed reviews on taste
  • Mixed reviews on effectiveness
  • Contains sucralose

Bottom Line

Jacked Factory Nitrosurge Pre-Workout is a generally positively reviewed pre-workout with 180 milligrams of caffeine and a large variety of flavor options.

Jacked Factory Nitrosurge pre-workout makes an excellent choice for ladies who enjoy cardio. You’ll have the option to make a serving size one or two scoops, depending on tolerance and personal preference. One scoop offers 180 milligrams of caffeine, while two scoops will give you 360 milligrams.

In addition to caffeine, Nitrosurge has all the best pre-workout ingredients including beta-alanine, betaine anhydrous, L-citrulline, and L-theanine. The formulation also includes a patented compound called AstraGin, which claims to help support gut health and the absorption of active ingredients. 

Overall, Nitrosurge’s formulation earns 4 out of 5 stars because a single-scoop serving may not uphold some of the recommended doses on key ingredients. That said, an Amino Acids Journal11 randomized control trial showed that a daily dose of 1.6 grams of beta-alanine increases carnosine levels in the body, which may help to diminish lactic acid in the muscles. 

Women who consistently perform cardio could benefit from the 1.6 grams of beta-alanine in a single scoop or 3.2 grams in a double-scoop serving. 

A scoop of Nitrosurge Pre-Workout being poured into a shaker cup

One callout we have with this pre-workout is the fact it’s not third-party tested. While the brand provides a transparent label and is manufactured in a Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-certified facility, we still prefer to see independent lab testings from Informed Choice or the NSF. 

When it comes to taste and solubility, Nitrosurge earns a 5-out-of-5-star rating in both categories. Kate Meier, GGR senior director of content, certified personal trainer, and former marathon runner says that the Strawberry Margarita flavor is delicious. She also liked the fact there were 15 unique flavors to choose from. We’ve got more details in our full Nitrosurge Pre-Workout review

Price per serving$1 to $2 depending on serving size
Caffeine content 180 mg (1 scoop) 360 mg (2 scoops)
Key Ingredients Beta-alanine, L-citrulline, betaine anhydrous, L-theanine, theobromine, AstraGin
Flavor options14
Third-party tested?No

Best Cardio Pre-Workout For Men: XWERKS Ignite Pre-Workout

Good for: Men looking for beneficial vitamins and minerals in a pre-workout 

Best for Men

Xwerks Ignite Pre-Workout

GGR Score: 3.7 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Designed to provide sustainable energy without the crash
  • Uses a blend of caffeine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, rhodiola rosea, DMAE, L-tyrosine, carnosyn beta-alanine, L-citrulline malate, as well as calcium and magnesium lactate.
  • Xwerks claims that this product increases muscle growth and repair, enhances focus, and expands muscular endurance and work capacity
  • Available in 4 flavors

Pros & Cons


  • Natural ingredients
  • Less caffeine than other pre-workout supplements on the market
  • No crash
  • Great-tasting


  • Expensive
  • May make you feel jittery or experience other side effects like headaches or digestive problems

Bottom Line

Xwerks Ignite is an all natural pre-workout supplement with both energy-boosting and focus-enhancing ingredients. It may be a good choice for those who want a clean and effective product with a dose of vitamins.

In our in-depth XWERKS Ignite review, our in-house certified personal trainer and certified nutrition coach Nicole Davis didn’t experience any adverse side effects while taking XWERKS, but thought the formulation was just OK for muscle pumps and energy. It only scored 2 out of 5 stars. However, when we look at the same formulation through a cardiovascular exercise lens, the ingredients may be better served for aerobic exercisers versus weightlifters and bodybuilders. 

In XWERKS Ignite, you’ll find common pre-workout ingredients like L-citrulline malate, L-tyrosine, and beta-alanine. However, XWERKS also contains healthy doses of B vitamins: 500% of your daily value of B6 and 2,500% of your daily value in vitamin B12. Chelsea Rae Bourgeois, registered dietitian, notes the large dose isn’t dangerous to consume for healthy folks. “Whatever B vitamins your body doesn’t absorb will get excreted,” she says. 

A woman pours a scoop of XWERKS Ignite Pre-Workout into a glass of water.

The abundant amount of B vitamins may be beneficial for cardio exercise—a recent study from International Journal of Medical Sciences12 found that a vitamin B complex taken daily helped improve endurance and reduced exercise fatigue. 

Additionally, XWERKS Ignite is formulated with magnesium, which has been shown to provide better cardiorespiratory index results and increase maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) during aerobic exercise, as outlined by a Nutrients13 systemic review. The same review notes magnesium has also been shown to regulate blood pressure and heart rate. 

It’s worth noting that XWERKS Ignite also contains DMAE bitartrate, which may provide cognitive benefits, but it’s an ingredient Chelsea recommends avoiding in large doses.

Price per serving$1.63
Caffeine content150 mg
Key Ingredients Calcium-lactate gluconate, pyridoxine hcl, cyanocobalamin, magnesium lactate, rhodiola rosea, DMAE bitartrate, caffeine anhydrous, bioperine, l-citrulline malate, l-tyrosine, CarnoSyn, beta-alanine 
Flavor options4
Third-party tested?No

Best Value Pre-Workout for Cardio: Nutricost Pre-X Pre-Workout

Good for: Folks looking for an affordable pre-workout for cardiovascular exercise 

Best Value

Nutricost Pre-X Pre-Workout

GGR Score: 4 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Pre-workout formula with B vitamins
  • 300 mg of caffeine per serving
  • About $1 per serving
  • Third-party tested
  • 5 flavor options

Pros & Cons


  • Contains B vitamins
  • Gluten-free and non-GMO
  • Affordable price per serving


  • Not enough research to support the ingredients that claim to support cognitive function
  • Caffeine content may be too much for some folks

Bottom Line

Nutricost Pre-X is an affordable pre-workout at about $1 per serving. There are five flavors to choose from, each with a light and refreshing taste. Each serving contains 300 milligrams of caffeine, which is equivalent to about 3 cups of coffee.

Nutricost Pre-X may be one of the best value pre-workout supplements we’ve tested for cardio with an affordable price, around $1 per serving. Our testers, Kate Meier, GGR senior director of content, CPT, and USAW-L1, along with Jacob Penner, CPT and USAW-L2, agree that it’s nice to see an affordable price tag in addition to third-party testing results; Nutricost Pre-X is NSF-certified.

Pre-X earns 4-out-of-5-star ratings in both taste and solubility categories. Kate says, “It’s very drinkable, refreshing, and tastes just like you’d expect Blue Raspberry to taste.” 

Pre-X is non-GMO, vegetarian, and gluten-free. Plus it contains common pre-workout ingredients like beta-alanine, betaine anhydrous, L-citrulline, L-Theanine, taurine, and caffeine. 

Some unique cognitive function-related ingredients include alpha-GPC14, a supplement that’s been shown to increase neurotransmitters for learning and memory, and may even aid endurance performance and increase natural growth hormone secretion. 

Huperzine A is another ingredient with potential cognitive benefits, but most Huperzine A studies15 are not performed on athletes. There is still limited evidence to suggest Huperzine A provides a direct link between cognitive function and exercise performance. 

Price per serving$1.09
Caffeine content300 mg
Key Ingredients L-citrulline, beta-alanine, taurine, Nirtosigine, betaine anhydrous, Agmatine Sulfate, L-tyrosine, Alpha-GPC, DMAE, CPC Choline, Theobromine, Huperzine A, Niacin, Vitamin B6 and B12
Flavor options5
Third-party tested?Yes

Other Pre-Workouts For Cardio We Researched

  • Kaged Pre-Kaged Sport: This pre-workout offers 188 milligrams of caffeine per serving and other beneficial ingredients like vitamin B6 and B12. It didn’t make the list because our testers have not had the chance to drink this Kaged pre-workout yet. 
  • Onnit Total Strength + Performance: We like the fact this pre-workout has branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), but it’s $2 per serving, and we don’t think the value is there; our testers didn’t like the taste and there are proprietary blends in it. 
  • 4 Gauge Pre-Workout: This didn’t make the list mostly because of its sour taste. But our testers like the fact it’s formulated with creatine, coconut water powder, and red beet root extract. 

How We Test and Select the Best Pre-Workout Supplements for Cardio

As I mentioned at the beginning of this roundup, GGR is staffed with strength and conditioning industry experts. We make sure to get hands-on experience with all of the pre-workout supplements we rate and score. 

We not only taste-test and workout after testing pre-workout supplements, we also use our in-depth GGR supplement testing methodology to score a variety of factors on a scale of 1 to 5.

Price Per Serving

GGR expert testers use our methodology to score price per serving for each pre-workout supplement tested. Higher scores (4- and 5-star ratings) are reserved for pre-workout powders that are priced under $1.00 per serving.

A person mixes up a dose of 4 Gauge Pre-Workout

Ingredients and Formulation

Our team prioritizes pre-workouts with quality pre-workout ingredients and research-backed doses of common ingredients like caffeine, citrulline, citrulline malate, beta-alanine, and creatine. We also look for formulas without proprietary blends, and little to no unnecessary ingredients, artificial flavors, and sweeteners.

RELATED: Best Pre-Workout Without Beta-Alanine

Our testers give lower scores to pre-workout supplements with proprietary blends, high doses of caffeine (more than 400 milligrams), or questionable stimulants like dendrobium, synephrine, DMAE, rauwolfia vomitoria, and yohimbe extract.

Taste and Solubility

Our testers rate both taste and solubility on a scale of 1 to 5 stars. Taste is rather subjective, but our testers take note of the flavor in question and provide a score on the general taste and how close the taste as the flavor advertised. We also favor products with a variety of flavors. 

For solubility, our testers follow the recommended amount of liquid and provide a score on the consistency. Points are deducted on supplements that don’t dissolve fully or separate easily. 

Caine Wilkes throws back some Transparent Labs Pre-Workout.

Side Effects

GGR expert testers score side effects on their personal use and take into account customer reviews. Common adverse side effects from pre-workouts include digestive issues, nausea, jitters, and tingling or shaking. 

If our tester (and quite a few other customers) experience multiple adverse side effects, that warrants low scores. Mild side effects lead to mid-tier scoring, and no side effects leads to higher scores. 

RELATED: Best Pre-Workout For Beginners

Third-Party Testing and Transparency 

Because dietary supplements are not approved and regulated by the FDA, we aim to prioritize supplements that have been third-party tested for quality and safety. Low scores are given to products without third-party testing verification and do not offer transparent nutrition labels (e.g. proprietary blends). 

The highest scores are given to pre-workouts that have fully transparents labels and are third-party tested by one of the major organizations like NSF, Informed Choice, Informed Sport, or Banned Substance Control Group (BSCG).

Looking down on a scoop of Transparent Labs Pre-Workout as it's being lifted from the container.

Customer Experience and Reviews

We not only base our testing process on our own experiences, but the experiences of other customers (like you!). We use average ratings from the company website, Amazon, or third-party websites like TrustPilot to inform our scoring when it comes to customer reviews.

Additionally, we score the overall customer experience. Low scores reserved for companies that are challenging to work with, have convoluted contacting methods, or have delayed response times. High scores are given to brands that have a responsive customer service team and a flexible return policy for first-time buyers. 

Person holding a scoop of Alpha Lion Superhuman pre-workout

Benefits of Pre-Workout For Cardio

Home gym owners, weight lifters, and general fitness junkies may be familiar with pre-workout benefits like increased blood flow, muscle pumps, and muscular endurance for more reps. While there is more research supporting the benefits of taking pre-workout before resistance training sessions, there is still evidence that suggests it’s also beneficial for cardio.

A scoop of Nitrosurge Pre-Workout is dumped into a glass bottle with a stainless steel shaker ball

One clinical trial published by Nutrition Research1 mentioned in at the beginning of this roundup found that healthy individuals supplementing with pre-workout formulas with a combination of caffeine, creatine, beta-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins increased their aerobic capacity in addition to muscular strength. 

Another study from the International Journal of Exercise2, also mentioned earlier in this roundup, notes that the most common ingredients in pre-workout includes beta-alanine, caffeine, tyrosine, creatine, and arginine. Some of these popular ingredients have stand-alone benefits when it comes to aerobic exercise including: 

  • Caffeine16: Caffeine alone has been shown effective for high-intensity exercise and extended endurance exercise. 
  • Beta-alanine11: Daily supplementation of 1.6 milligrams has been shown to improve exercise performance. 
  • L-Arginine17: Can help increase nitric oxide production and enhance strength, power, and muscle recovery for both aerobic and strength training.

Dosing and Interactions 

Before you buy a pre-workout supplement, keep in mind that some pre-workout ingredients may interact with medications. If you take prescription medications, be sure to double-check with your doctor or a registered dietitian before starting a new supplement to prevent harmful interactions. 

Additionally, pre-workout is not an ideal supplement for folks who suffer from cardiovascular disease or have blood pressure issues, due to the fact caffeine can increase heart rate while other pre-workout ingredients are known to dilate blood vessels and increase blood flow. 

Best Pre-Workout For Cardio: FAQs

Can I use pre-workout for cardio?

While there is plenty of research supporting the fact pre-workout can increase physical performance for strength training sessions, there is less evidence to support pre-workout as beneficial for cardiovascular exercise. However, an older Sport Medicine review16 shows caffeine may aid endurance performance. 

What is the best pre-workout food for cardio?

One of the best ways to fuel endurance exercise18 is with carbohydrates. Our team of experts has an in-depth guide to the best pre-workout foods for everything from cardio to strength training. 

Is pre-workout OK for your heart?

If you suffer from a cardiovascular disease, consult your doctor about taking a pre-workout, especially ones dosed with caffeine, which can increase your heart rate and put strain on the cardiovascular system. 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.


  1. Kendall KL, Moon JR, Fairman CM, et al. Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men. Nutr Res. 2014;34(5):442-449. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.04.003
  2. Lutsch DJ, Camic CL, Jagim AR, Johnston NJ, Musgjerd TL. Acute Effects of a Multi-Ingredient Pre-Workout Supplement On 5-KM Running Performance in Recreationally-Trained Athletes. Int J Exerc Sci. 2019;12(2):1045-1056. Published 2019 Aug 1.
  3. Shrimanker I, Bhattarai S. Electrolytes. [Updated 2023 Jul 24]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-. 
  4. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Rashti SL, Faigenbaum AD. Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009;6:7. Published 2009 Feb 27. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-6-7
  5. Ripps H, Shen W. Review: taurine: a “very essential” amino acid. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2673-2686.
  6. Joy JM, Vogel RM, Moon JR, et al. Ancient peat and apple extracts supplementation may improve strength and power adaptations in resistance trained men. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:224. Published 2016 Jul 18. doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1222-x
  7. Owen GN, Parnell H, De Bruin EA, Rycroft JA. The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutr Neurosci. 2008;11(4):193-198. doi:10.1179/147683008X301513
  8. Gough LA, Sparks SA, McNaughton LR, et al. A critical review of citrulline malate supplementation and exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2021;121(12):3283-3295. doi:10.1007/s00421-021-04774-6
  9. Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Stout JR, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:30. Published 2015 Jul 15. doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0090-y
  10. Nemzer BV, Centner C, Zdzieblik D, Fink B, Hunter JM, König D. Oxidative stress or redox signalling – new insights into the effects of a proprietary multifunctional botanical dietary supplement. Free Radic Res. 2018;52(3):362-372. doi:10.1080/10715762.2017.1390228
  11. Stellingwerff T, Anwander H, Egger A, et al. Effect of two β-alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout. Amino Acids. 2012;42(6):2461-2472. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-1054-4
  12. Lee MC, Hsu YJ, Shen SY, Ho CS, Huang CC. A functional evaluation of anti-fatigue and exercise performance improvement following vitamin B complex supplementation in healthy humans, a randomized double-blind trial. Int J Med Sci. 2023;20(10):1272-1281. Published 2023 Aug 15. doi:10.7150/ijms.86738
  13. Zhang Y, Xun P, Wang R, Mao L, He K. Can Magnesium Enhance Exercise Performance?. Nutrients. 2017;9(9):946. Published 2017 Aug 28. doi:10.3390/nu9090946
  14. Parker AG, Byars A, Purpura M, Jäger R. The effects of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, caffeine or placebo on markers of mood, cognitive function, power, speed, and agility. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12(Suppl 1):P41. Published 2015 Sep 21. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-12-S1-P41
  15. Wessinger CM, Inman CL, Weinstock J, Weiss EP. Effect of Huperzine A on Cognitive Function and Perception of Effort during Exercise: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial. Int J Exerc Sci. 2021;14(2):727-741. Published 2021 Aug 1.
  16. Tarnopolsky MA. Caffeine and endurance performance. Sports Med. 1994 Aug;18(2):109-25. doi: 10.2165/00007256-199418020-00004. PMID: 9132918.
  17. Álvares TS, Meirelles CM, Bhambhani YN, Paschoalin VM, Gomes PS. L-Arginine as a potential ergogenic aid in healthy subjects. Sports Med. 2011;41(3):233-248. doi:10.2165/11538590-000000000-00000
  18. Ormsbee MJ, Bach CW, Baur DA. Pre-exercise nutrition: the role of macronutrients, modified starches and supplements on metabolism and endurance performance. Nutrients. 2014;6(5):1782-1808. Published 2014 Apr 29. doi:10.3390/nu6051782

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