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Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids (EAAs) that must be consumed from high-protein foods. Out of the nine EAAs, three of them are BCAAs—leucine, isoleucine, and valine. 

Despite being essential, BCAA supplements are kinda like Santa Claus: Some fitness goers totally believe they aid lean muscle growth, minimize muscle soreness, and enhance athletic performance. Others, eh, don’t have much belief in them. 

Regardless of how you feel about BCAAs, they are widely used in the supplement industry and added to some of the best pre-workout drinks. That said, we’ll stay on the nice list this year and bring you five of the best pre-workout with BCAAs.

Medical disclaimer: This article is intended for educational and informational purposes only. It is not intended as a substitute for medical advice. For health advice, contact a licensed healthcare provider.

We Take All Reviewing Stages Seriously

Whether searching for the best pre-workouts with BCAAs or debunking post-workout recovery myths, we take our entire reviewing process seriously. And as registered dietitians, sports nutrition experts, and certified personal trainers, we genuinely love analyzing the latest research AND putting products to the test. 

After feeling confident in our recommendations, we package them into fact-based guides and proudly deliver them to our readers. (No milk and cookies required, although appreciated!)

Best Pre-Workout With BCAAs

The BCAA Caveat 

As a caveat right up front, research1 tells us that branched-chain amino acid supplementation alone cannot support an increased rate of muscle protein synthesis. However, pairing BCAAs with protein—whether with whole food sources or a protein shake—may increase muscle protein synthesis.

This aligns with what we know about muscle growth: For synthesis of new muscle protein, all amino acids—including all essential, non-essential, and branched-chain amino acids—must be present in adequate amounts.

This is all to say that taking pre-workout with BCAAs is not enough to elicit those bodybuilding dreams. Instead, it’s essential that you stack it with other high-quality protein sources—balanced with carbohydrates and fats, too—to reap any potential benefits. 

(And if you’re curious about the research, be sure to stick with us—the most recent data is compiled and coming up!)

Best Overall Pre-Workout with BCAAs: Kaged Pre-Kaged

Good for: Anyone searching for a high-quality, third-party tested pre-workout with BCAAs

Best Overall

Kaged Pre-Kaged Pre-Workout

GGR Score: 4.2 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Contains research-backed dosages of key ingredients like caffeine, creatine, and citrulline
  • Informed Sport-certified, meaning it’s been tested for quality assurance and banned substances. 
  • 7 flavors are available

Pros & Cons

Pros

  • Good formulation of research-backed ingredients
  • Label transparency
  • 7 flavors and users overwhelmingly like the taste

Cons

  • Big serving size
  • Expensive

Bottom Line

Kaged Pre-Kaged is expensive, but is formulated with research-backed dosages of key ingredients like caffeine, creatine, beta-alanine, and citrulline.

Ready to split that barbell in half? OK, maybe that’s too extreme, but with Kaged telling us “you’ll feel ready to attack your workout” on its website, you can likely expect an intense workout—all thanks to its research-backed formula. 

We’ll first call out that Kaged Pre-Kaged provides BCAAs in a 2:1:1 ratio—two parts leucine, one part isoleucine, and one part valine—in what they call “Muscle Fuel Matrix.” When rounding up the best BCAA powders, we look for a 2:1:1 ratio because that’s what research2 supports is the most impactful for muscle protein synthesis. 

Pre-Kaged has your pump covered with 6.5 grams of L-citrulline3, an amino acid that helps boost nitric oxide in the body and improve blood flow. A 2020 review4 reports that L-citrulline supplementation can enhance exercise performance and recovery and even improve blood pressure levels.

The “Anabolic Activator” trifecta—or 2.5 grams of BetaPower (betaine anhydrous5), 1.6 grams of CarnoSyn (beta-alanine6), and 1.5 grams of Creatine HCl (patented creatine hydrochloric acid)—may improve power, exercise capacity, and muscular endurance. 

Kaged Pre Kaged Pre Workout

While 4-6 grams of beta-alanine is the typical recommended dose, at least during the initial two- to four-week loading week, research7 suggests dividing it into lower doses of 1.6 grams can improve paresthesia—or that tingling feeling some people may or may not prefer when taking a pre-workout. 

With creatine monohydrate being the most popular form of creatine, you might wonder what’s up with creatine HCl. Here’s the down low: Whereas both forms of creatine can improve athletic performance and strength, rising evidence8 hints that creatine HCl is 41 times more absorbable and promotes favorable changes in body composition. 

RELATED: Best Creatine

And to really seal the deal, Kaged Pre-Kaged provides precisely 274 milligrams of caffeine sourced from organic green coffee beans. Combined with the other active ingredients in the “Neuro-Focus Matrix”—2 grams of taurine9, 1 gram of n-acetyl-l-tyrosine, and 850 milligrams of L-tyrosine10—you’re likely to see sounds (or at least have a mega boost of endurance and mental focus). 

And to “Hydrate and Defend,” Pre-Kaged combines coconut water powder (rich in electrolytes) and SPECTRA™ Total ORAC Blend. Kaged tells us that SPECTRA™ is a premium antioxidant of 29 fruit and veggie extracts—like coffee extract (why not add more to the party?), broccoli concentrate, and sweet cherry concentrate—to counter inflammation and support cellular metabolism. You’ll also get a hefty dose of B vitamins—like niacin, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12—to support energy metabolism. 

All flavors—like Berry Blast, Cherry Bomb, Krisp Apple, just to name a few—are vegan-friendly and free of artificial flavors, artificial colors, gluten, and GMOs. They contain 3 grams of carbs and 1 gram of sugar, although no refined sugars appear to be intentionally added. Also, rest easy knowing that Kaged Pre-Kaged is third-party tested and Informed-Choice Certified, meaning it does not contain any banned substance and is a safe choice for athletes.

Nicole Davis, expert tester and  GGR senior editor, tried Pre-Kaged. “I’ve tried the Krisp Apple flavor—I like the taste, and it’s not too sweet,” she says. “It also smells strongly like apples after it’s mixed, which is a nice surprise for your nose during each sip. However, there’s an unpleasant mouthfeel after each sip, and it doesn’t dissolve completely.”

For a deeper dive into this product, check out our full Kaged Muscle Pre-Kaged review. (We also have an exclusive GGR coupon code to get you 25% off on all Pre-Kaged flavors—GGR25.)

Key Ingredients Beta-Alanine, Betaine Anhydrous, Caffeine, Creatine HCl, Fermented BCAAs, L-Tyrosine, Taurine
Flavor Option(s)Berry Blast, Cherry Bomb, Fruit Punch, Grape, Krisp Apple, Pink Lemonade, Orange Kush
Cost$44.99/20 servings = $2.25/serving

Best-Tasting Pre-Workout with BCAAs: JYM Supplement Science Pre JYM

Good for: Those who like to casually enjoy their pre-workout before unleashing at the gym 

Best-Tasting

JYM Supplement Science Pre JYM Pre-Workout

GGR Score: 3.8 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • A pre-workout powder powerhouse
  • Packed with lab- and gym-tested ingredients
  • 9 different flavors to pick from
  • Boosts strength, energy, endurance, mindset, and muscle growth
  • 14 active ingredients and a nutritional supplement
  • Higher potency with 26-gram scoops
  • Award-winning brand and pre-workout supplement

Pros & Cons

Pros

  • Helps boost your energy for any workout
  • Supports mental focus with caffeine, alpha-GPC, and huperzine A
  • Includes amino acids to promote muscular strength and endurance
  • Great for men and women

Cons

  • Do not take up to 6 hours before bed
  • Some reviewers don’t love the flavors
  • Reviewer complaints about high sucralose and sugar levels
  • Shares equipment that handles eggs, milk, soy, tree nuts, and wheat
  • Not third-party tested

Bottom Line

Fuel your body with a delicious pre-workout supplement with nutrients and 14 active ingredients for an energy-boosting workout.

Gym-goers meet JYM, a “pre-workout powder powerhouse with lab and gym tested ingredients to support improved workouts.” Oh, and it comes in 10 tempting flavors—but more on that in a sec.

But we first need to mention that JYM’s pre-workout formula provides 6 grams of BCAAs (in a 2:1:1 ratio). It also contains more familiar ingredients—like creatine HCl, beta-alanine, and betaine—and introduces us to new ones.

New to the pre-workout crew is citrulline malate11—a combo of L-citrulline and malate—that may enhance nitric oxide production, therefore improving blood flow, muscle recovery, and endurance. JYM’s addition of beetroot extract12 may further enhance nitric oxide and athletic performance. 

Also joining in on the fun are Huperzine A, a derivative of a traditional Chinese herb that may combat inflammation and increase cognition, and BioPerine® Black Pepper Extract to help absorb available nutrients. Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine13 (alpha-GPC) wraps up the active ingredient list, which could augment isometric strength, muscle performance, and cognition.14 

To go out with an ingredient bang, JYM’s pre-workout provides a whopping 300 milligrams of caffeine. Of course, we encourage you to consume safely and even reduce the dose as needed and tolerated. 

With that caffeinated high dips a low, as the pre-workout does contain color additive—like Blue #1, Red #40, and Yellow #5—depending on the flavor. While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) suggests these color additives are mostly safe and side effects are rare, allergic-type and other adverse reactions can still occur. 

JYM Pre Workout 4

It’s also worth noting that it contains 80 calories per serving, which isn’t an overwhelming amount but is more than the others on our list. There’s also no sign of third-party testing. As we covered in our full JYM pre-workout review, while this doesn’t exactly mean you should be running away from JYM, it does lack certification that reassures consumers it’s independently tested for clean manufacturing, potency, efficacy, or safety.

Anthony O’Reilly, GGR performance editor and product tester, says, “When it comes to pumps, move over Michelin man!” Unfortunately, he was less impressed with the longevity and other effects: “This keeps you energized and focused for a little while, but compared to some other pre-workouts I’ve tried, it’s like it’s here one second and gone the next. The effects just aren’t long-lasting, unfortunately,” he says.

Key Ingredients Alpha-GPC, BCAAs (in 2:1:1 ratio), Beet Root Extra, Beta-Alanine, Betaine, Caffeine, Citrulline Malate, Creatine HCl, Huperzine A
Flavor Option(s)Rainbow Sherbert, Grape Candy, Cherry Limeade, Orange Mango, Tangerine, Pink Lemonade, Pineapple Strawberry, Raspberry Lemonade, Black Cherry, Strawberry Kiwi
Cost$44.99/20 servings = $2.25/serving

Best Caffeine-Free Pre-Workout with BCAAs: Onnit Total Strength + Performance

Good for: Powering your workouts without the stim

Best Caffeine-Free

Onnit Total Strength & Performance Pre-Workout

GGR Score: 4.1 starstarstarstarstar
Community Score: 4 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Plant-based
  • Blended with botanical ingredients, vitamins, and adaptogens 
  • Third-party tested
  • Deemed banned substance-tested

Pros & Cons

Pros

  • Website links to controlled studies
  • Plant-based
  • Band-substance tested and approved
  • Gluten-, soy-, dairy-, and caffeine-free

Cons

  • Only one flavor
  • Some consumers did not like the taste
  • Some consumers also say it does not mix well

Bottom Line

Onnit’s Total Strength & Performance provides a unique blend of botanical ingredients, adaptogens, and vitamins to enhance performance leading to research-backed strength gains.

Think the best pre-workouts need caffeine? Think again! The best stim-free pre-workouts are formulated with other active ingredients that elicit athletic performance and recovery, just as Onnit Total Strength + Performance does with its formula. 

Onnit’s caffeine-free pre-workout with BCAAs divides its active ingredients into three proprietary blends for performance, power, and support. The Performance Blend, intended to promote endurance, contains BCAAs, L-glutamine, and beta-alanine from CarnoSyn. Although it does have BCAAs, whether or not it’s formulated with the 2:1:1 ratio isn’t clear. 

The stimulant-free pre-workout also provides a Power Blend featuring unique ingredients—like d-aspartic acid15, mucuna pruriens16, longjack17, and stinging nettle18—to support hormone health, lower inflammation, and enhance cognition. The Support Blend—a mix of red clover19, luteolin20, and resveratrol21—may further combat fatigue, stress, and inflammation. 

We don’t always encourage proprietary blends, but Onnit’s pre-workout contains research-backed and natural ingredients. But especially if you’re taking any medications, and because exact amounts of each ingredient are unknown, it’s wise to go through the ingredients list and investigate any potential interactions. 

On that same token, Onnit is committed to showing how supplements formulated with “earth-grown nutrients” can improve human performance. A 2015 study22 analyzing how Total Strength + Performance impacts various metrics—like muscular strength and body composition—found improvements in one-rep max lifts and total weight lifted. They do note that while there were improvements in body composition, there were no differences between the supplementation and placebo groups.

And to cap things off, the pre-workout with BCAAs is third-party tested and Informed-Sport Certified. Both flavors—Pink Grapefruit and Strawberry Lemonade—are also vegan-friendly and free of gluten, soy, and dairy.

Key Ingredients BCAAs, Beta-Alanine, L-Glutamine, and Herbal Ingredients (like Red Clover and Stinging Nettle)
Flavor Option(s)Pink Grapefruit, Strawberry Lemonade
Cost$59.95/30 servings = $2.00/serving

Best Budget Pre-Workout with BCAAs: Evlution Nutrition BCAA Energy

Good for: Fitness goers who prioritize their budgets and supps 

Best Budget

Evlution Nutrition BCAA Energy

GGR Score: 3.5 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Long list of beneficial ingredients to better your performance including 5 grams of pure BCAAs per serving
  • Formulated to support muscle growth and recovery, improve energy and focus, enhance endurance capabilities, boost immunity, and hydrate
  • Combines vitamins, antioxidants, and key amino acids to support immunity
  • Available in 13 flavors
  • Can be used as an intra-workout supplement or taken on its own throughout the day
  • Key ingredients include BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in a 2:1:1 ratio, 110 milligrams of caffeine from green tea extract and coffee beans, taurine, L-alanine, beta-alanine, vitamin C, and B vitamins

Pros & Cons

Pros

  • Large variety of flavors (13)
  • Has vitamins and antioxidants
  • Taste
  • Natural caffeine
  • Mixes well

Cons

  • Artificial ingredients
  • Contains sucralose

Bottom Line

Available in 13 tasty flavors, Evlution Nutrition’s BCAA Energy powder combines 5 grams of BCAAs, naturally occurring caffeine, vitamins, and antioxidants into one product.

Out of our top picks, Evlution Nutrition BCAA Energy sports the slimmest ingredients list. And even as our best budget pre-workout with BCAAs, it still likely delivers the ingredients you’re hoping for. 

Evlution’s pre-workout provides a 2:1:1 BCAA Matrix with an adequate 2.5-gram dose of leucine. It also contains beta-alanine, taurine, and L-alanine—and not to be confused with beta-alanine, L-alanine is an amino acid used to make proteins that may reduce muscle and BCAA breakdown according to a 2022 case report.23

The pre-workout formula is also relatively low in caffeine (110 milligrams per serving, to be exact) compared to other pre-workouts. This can be a pro or con depending on your caffeine tolerance, although Evlution suggests you can pump it up to 3 scoops for higher intensity exercise (with caution, of course).

It also provides vitamins C, B6, and B12 to help support energy levels during intense workouts and reduce any proceeding inflammation. 

Evlution does contain food dyes and artificial ingredients that some consumers may want to avoid. But ending positively, the pre-workout is manufactured by a Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)-registered facility. 

Key Ingredients BCAAs, Beta-Alanine, Caffeine, L-Alanine, Taurine
Flavor Option(s)Acai Berry, Blue Raz, Cherry Limeade, Green Apple, Fruit Punch, Furious Grape, Orange Blast, Peach Mango, Peach Rings, Pink Lemonade, Pink Starburst, Rocket Pop, Vanilla Iced Coffee, Watermelon
Cost$17.99/30 servings = $0.60/serving

Best Low-Caffeine Pre-Workout With BCAAs: Optimum Nutrition Amin.o Energy

Good for: Getting a gentle dose of energy and BCAAs 

Best Low-Caffeine

Essential Amin.o Energy

GGR Score: 3.8 starstarstarstarstar

Product Highlights

  • Comes in 11 flavors
  • Zero added sugars
  • Has 100 mg of caffeine per serving
  • Great for a boost of energy and mental focus
  • Supports muscle recovery with amino acids

Pros & Cons

Pros

  • Great price
  • Only 5-10 calories per serving
  • Lots of flavor options

Cons

  • Artificially flavored
  • Artificial sweeteners

Bottom Line

If you’re looking for an affordable muscle recovery and energy drink, then Essential Amin.o. Energy might be a great fit for you.

If you’re looking for a little pep in your step, then Optimum Nutrition Amin.o Energy could be for you. The low-caff pre-workout with BCAAs provides a gentler 100-milligram dose of caffeine per serving from green coffee and tea leaf extracts.

It provides 5 grams of amino acids, but because it’s a blend, we can’t determine how much of each amino acid it contains. Using the process of elimination, the Amin.o Energy drink provides seven out of the nine EAAs. Phenylalanine and tryptophan are the missing two, but it does provide all three of the BCAAs, albeit in a questionable amount and ratio. 

As anticipated, Optimum Nutrition delivers on the flavors. There might not be indulgent Chocolate and Vanilla options like their best protein powder flavors, but several fruity flavors—like Blueberry Mojito and Strawberry Lime—are available to pick from.

ON Amino Energy 7

Amanda Capritto, GGR senior writer and expert tester, says, “I’ve never been disappointed in Optimum Nutrition Amino Energy! It’s one of the only supplements that I don’t have to purposely dilute because the flavor is too sweet. Although it is sweetened with sucralose, I don’t get that distinctive artificial aftertaste that you sometimes get. The Green Apple flavor is tart but sweet, and super fruity. I enjoyed it.”

Depending on the flavor, the formula does contain food dyes and soy. While these two ingredients are mostly considered safe, some people may avoid them due to dietary restrictions and preferences.

Like all of Optimum Nutrition’s supplements, Amin.o Energy is manufactured at its Informed-Sport registered, Glanbia Performance Nutrition facility.

Key Ingredients Amino Blend, Caffeine
Flavor Option(s)Blue Raspberry, Blueberry Lemonade, Blueberry Mojito, Concord Grape, Fruit Fusion, Green Apple, Juicy Strawberry, Orange, Strawberry Lime, Watermelon, Wild Berry
Cost$27.99/30 servings = $0.93/serving

Other Pre-Workout with BCAAs We Researched

If none of those pre-workouts with BCAAs strike your fancy, other products we researched and approve of include:  

How We Picked and Tested the Best Pre-Workouts with BCAAs

When narrowing down our search for the best pre-workout supplements with BCAAs, we looked for:

  • Key ingredients: The best pre-workouts with BCAAs should obviously contain the three BCAAs—leucine, isoleucine, and valine—ideally in a 2:1:1 ratio. Other key ingredients we looked for include beta-alanine, betaine, caffeine, citrulline malate, L-citrulline, and L-tyrosine.
  • Caffeine content: While caffeine is an active ingredient in most pre-workouts, some consumers prefer or need to do without it. That said, we rounded up pre-workouts with zero, a little, or a lottle caffeine to accommodate a variety of tolerances. 
  • Flavors: With over 30 flavors to choose from in our top picks, we hope it’s apparent that we offer variety to satisfy all palates. Besides, who wants to choke down a flavor they don’t enjoy? 
  • Cost: Because everyone’s budget looks different and we want to accommodate most (if not all) of them, our top picks vary in price. 
  • Customer reviews: Reviewing customer reviews can tell you A LOT about a product and the company behind it, including how they handle any customer issues. That said, we sift through customer reviews—on their main website and Amazon—and lean toward companies we feel will treat our readers respectfully and kindly. 

Benefits of Pre-Workouts with BCAAs

While we’ve nuanced the benefits of taking a pre-workout with BCAAs, below captures the biggest takeaways of how it could leverage your fitness goals. 

Enhances Energy and Athletic Performance

An energy boost is at the essence of a pre-workout powder, especially when formulated with caffeine. But even for those who’d rather go without the stim, caffeine-free pre-workouts can still increase energy and blood flow thanks to ingredients like citrulline and beetroot. 

Research24 also suggests that long-term BCAA supplementation can improve sprint performance in endurance cyclists. Other ergogenic ingredients common to pre-workouts, such as creatine25, also can enhance athletic performance by improving energy to muscle tissues.

Aids Muscle Growth

If you want to build muscle mass, eating high-quality protein and practicing progressive overload is key. A pre-workout with BCAAs can assist your muscle gain efforts by enhancing muscle endurance and providing amino acids to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. 

Augments Muscle Recovery

But for muscle growth to occur, muscle protein synthesis must be greater than the rate of muscle breakdown—which occurs with rest and recovery. This is where BCAAs shine the most, as research26 shows BCAA supplementation may reduce the muscle damage associated with endurance exercise. 

Supportive data27 implies that BCAAs can be a valuable supplement for muscle recovery, particularly by decreasing exercise-induced muscle damage and muscle soreness. BCAAs may also improve immune function, thus promoting tissue repair and regeneration following muscle damage.28 

Increases Focus and Cognition

Various ingredients in pre-workout—like caffeine, L-tyrosine, and alpha-GPC—act as nootropics and can increase your focus during a workout. Moreover, research29 suggests that while larger doses (more than 200 milligrams) enhance exercise performance, even low doses (40 milligrams) of caffeine improve cognition.

Dosing and Interactions 

Like any pre-workout, you should dose according to the instructions of the product of choice. And generally, you should not consume more than one serving daily, especially if the product contains high amounts of caffeine. 

While added vitamins and herbs tend to be safe, they are definitely worth your attention. Some pre-workouts contain wildly high doses of vitamin C and B vitamins, which can lead to digestive issues and other potentially harmful side effects, and should be dosed with caution (particularly if taking other products with these micronutrients).

Natural herbs are most problematic for interacting with medication and compromising their efficiency. For instance, the longjack used in Onnit’s formula may reduce how much propranolol (a medication used to treat various cardiovascular conditions) is absorbed in the body.

With so much variability between pre-workout formulas and everyone’s unique health circumstances, we highly recommend consulting with your healthcare team before taking any supplement. 

Third-Party Testing

Since the FDA doesn’t tightly regulate dietary supplements, we encourage choosing third-party tested products that have undergone rigorous testing to ensure they contain what they claim to have. Common indications of third-party testing include: 

  • Informed Choice Certified 
  • Informed Sport Certified 
  • NSF Certified for Sport 
  • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)

Third-party verifications can also be helpful if you have specific dietary restrictions, needs, and preferences like:

  • Certified Gluten-Free
  • Certified Kosher
  • Certified Vegan
  • Non-GMO Project Verified
  • USDA Organic

FAQs About Pre-Workout with BCAAs

Is there pre-workout with BCAAs?

Several pre-workouts with BCAAs are on the market, like our top five picks—Kaged Pre-Kaged, JYM Supplement Science Pre JYM, Onnit Total Strength + Performance, Optimum Nutrition Amin.o Energy, and Evlution Nutrition BCAA Energy.

Which BCAA is best for pre-workout?

While there’s no universal guideline on which BCAA is best for pre-workout, you should ideally take one formulated in a 2:1:1 ratio—two parts leucine, one part isoleucine, and one part valine—because this is the most supported by research.

Is BCAA better pre or post workout?

Whether BCAAs are better pre- or post-workout depends on what the BCAA supplement is intended for. For instance, pre-workout with BCAAs should be used before your workout to enhance muscle endurance and blunt fatigue. If your BCAAs are a stand-alone product, combining them with a high-quality protein shake or another protein source could augment muscle growth and recovery.1

Does C4 pre-workout have BCAAs?

C4 pre-workouts—including Cellucor C4 Original and Cellucor C4 Sport—do not currently contain BCAAs, although they offer individual supplements with BCAAs that you can stack.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.

References

  1. Wolfe RR. Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality? J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14(1). doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-017-0184-9
  2. Shimomura Y, Kitaura Y. Physiological and pathological roles of branched-chain amino acids in the regulation of protein and energy metabolism and neurological functions. Pharmacol Res. 2018;133:215-217. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2018.05.014
  3. Figueroa A, Wong A, Jaime SJ, et al. Influence of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation on vascular function and exercise performance. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017;20(1):92-98. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000340
  4. Gonzalez AM, Trexler ET. Effects of Citrulline Supplementation on Exercise Performance in Humans: A Review of the Current Literature. J Strength Cond Res. 2020 May;34(5):1480-1495. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003426. PMID: 31977835.
  5. Cholewa JM, Wyszczelska-Rokiel M, Glowacki R, et al. Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10(1):39. Published 2013 Aug 22. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-39
  6. Saunders B, Elliott-Sale K, Artioli GG, et al. β-alanine supplementation to improve exercise capacity and performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2016;51(8):658-669. doi:https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096396
  7. Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Stout JR, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:30. Published 2015 Jul 15. doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0090-y
  8. França E de, Avelar B, Yoshioka C, et al. Creatine HCl and Creatine Monohydrate Improve Strength but Only Creatine HCl Induced Changes on Body Composition in Recreational Weightlifters. Nutr Food Sci. 2015;06:1624. doi:https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2015.617167
  9. Kurtz JA, VanDusseldorp TA, Doyle JA, et al. Taurine in sports and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2021;18(1). doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-021-00438-0
  10. Kayacan Y, Yazar H, Kisa EC, et al. A novel biomarker explaining the role of oxidative stress in exercise and l-tyrosine supplementation: thiol/disulphide homeostasis. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2017;124(3):232-236. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2017.1388410
  11. Gough LA, Sparks SA, McNaughton LR, et al. A critical review of citrulline malate supplementation and exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. Published online August 21, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-021-04774-6
  12. Wylie LJ, Kelly J, Bailey SJ, et al. Beetroot juice and exercise: pharmacodynamic and dose-response relationships. J Appl Physiol. 2013;115(3):325-336. doi:https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00372.2013
  13. Bellar D, LeBlanc NR, Campbell B. The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:42. Published 2015 Nov 17. doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0103-x
  14. Shields KA, Silva JE, Rauch JT, et al. The effects of a multi-ingredient cognitive formula on alertness, focus, motivation, calmness and psychomotor performance in comparison to caffeine and placebo. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014;11(Suppl 1):P45. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-11-s1-p45
  15. Roshanzamir F, Safavi SM. The putative effects of D-Aspartic acid on blood testosterone levels: A systematic review. Int J Reprod Biomed. 2017;15(1):1-10.
  16. Lampariello LR, Cortelazzo A, Guerranti R, et al. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens. J Tradit Complement Med. 2012;2(4):331-339. doi:10.1016/s2225-4110(16)30119-5
  17. Khanijo T, Jiraungkoorskul W. Review Ergogenic Effect of Long Jack, Eurycoma Longifolia. Pharmacogn Rev. 2016;10(20):139-142. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.194041
  18. Bhusal KK, Magar SK, Thapa R, et al. Nutritional and pharmacological importance of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.): A review. Heliyon. 2022;8(6):e09717. Published 2022 Jun 22. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09717
  19. Chen YM, Wang I-Lin, Zhu XY, Chiu WC, Chiu YS. Red Clover Isoflavones Influence Estradiol Concentration, Exercise Performance, and Gut Microbiota in Female Mice. Front Nutr. 2021;8. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.623698
  20. Luo Y, Shang P, Li D. Luteolin: A Flavonoid that Has Multiple Cardio-Protective Effects and Its Molecular Mechanisms. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:692. Published 2017 Oct 6. doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00692
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